英语语法

参考: 《新概念英语语法手册》








名词

概述

名词是指人或事物的名称,也包括一些具有抽象概念的名词。




用法

  • 充当动词的主语
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Our 'agent' in Cairo sent a telex this morning.
#今天早晨我们在开罗的代理人发来一封电传。


  • 作动词的直接宾语
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Frank sent an urgent 'telex' from Cairo this morning.
#弗兰克今天早上从开罗发来一份加急电传。


  • 作动词的间接宾语
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Frank sent his 'boss' a telex.
#弗兰克给他的老板发了一份电传。


  • 作介词的宾语
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I read about it in 'the China Daily'.
#我在中国日报上看到了这个消息。


  • 作be、seem等系动词的表语
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Jones is our 'guest'.
#琼斯是我们的客人


  • 作同位语
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Laura, 'a BBC reporter', asked for an interview.
#劳拉,BBC的记者,要求采访。




复合名词

由两个或两个以上的名词部分组合而成的名词,称为复合名词。


  • 复合名词通常有四种构成形式
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1. 名词+名词
a keyboard(键盘)


2. 形容词+名词
a greenhouse(温室)


3. 动名词+名词
drinking water(饮用水)

4. 名词+动名词
sight-seeing(观光)


  • 还有一些复合名词表示特定含义
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Oxford Road, Beijing Capital International Airport




分类

  • 专有名词

专有名词指特定的人、地方、事物或概念,他们被认为是独一无二的。专有名词的开头字母要大写,前面一般不用冠词。

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#人名
Parker
Mr. Parker

#称呼
Mum

#地名
Asia

#月份、星期、节日、季节
April
Monday
Christmas
spring(季节一般不大写)


  • 普通名词

普通名词又可分为可数名词不可数名词
在普通名词前通常要使用冠词a, an, the…

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#可数名词
a book, an envelop
how many stamps do you have?


#不可数名词
water, milk, air
how much milk do you have?


#既是可数又是不可数
He ate much fish yesterday.
There are a large variety of fishes in the pond.


  • 复形名词

有些名词虽然形式上是复数形式,即以-s结尾,但实际上却表示单数意义。

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The news is at six.




名词的数

  • 名词的单数形式和复数形式
拼写规则 单数 复数
一般情况下加-s cat cats
以 -o, -x, -ch, -sh 结尾的加 -es potato
class
box
watch
brush
potatoes
classes
boxes
watches
brushes
以 辅音字母加 -y结尾,去-y加-ies
元音字母加 -y 结尾的加 -s
country
boys
countries
boys
以 -y 结尾的专有名词加 -s Fry Frys
以 -f, -fe 结尾的名词, 把-f, -fe变为 -ves wife wives
不规则变化 man
sheep
men
sheep


  • 以 -o 结尾一般要在后面加 -es

但元音字母加 -o 结尾的名词则只能加 -s。


  • 不规则拼写法
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foot/feet
mouse/mice
tooth/teeth


  • 单/复数形式相同
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sheep
deer
aricraft
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名词的性

  • 阳性
  • 阴性
  • 中性
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acrot(男演员)
actress(女演员)
guest(客人)


有些名词可以不加思索的用阳性代词he、阴性代词she、中性代词it来指代。
表示动物性别相对的名词一般可用it指代。




名词的格

  • 名词所有格的构成
说明 栗子
单数名词末尾加's child’s
以 -s结尾的单数名词末尾加's或加' actress’s/actress’
不规则的复数名词末尾加 's children’s
以-s结尾的复数名词末尾加 ' girls’
一些以 -s 结尾的人名末尾加 's James’s


所有格一般表示人或事物的所属概念,通常可以回答Whose...?的问句。

通常来说's/s'of的作用是一样的,但's/s'一般不和无生命的名词连用,而有生命的名词则两者通用。








冠词

有若干个词可以用在名词或形容词+名词的前面,我们把这类词统称为限定词(determiners),因为它们影响或限定着这个名词的意义。
冠词就是其中一种。




限定词

限定词分为两种:

  • 有助于分类或确认的词
  • 表数量的词


有助于分类或确认的词

  • 不定冠词
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I bought 'a' new shirt yesterday.

'A' girl came in and put 'an' envelope on his desk.


  • 定冠词
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'The' shirt I am wearing is new.


  • 指示代词
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I bought 'this/that' shirt yesterday.


  • 物主代词
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'My' shirt is blue.




表示数量的词

  • 数词
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I bought 'two' shirts yesterday.


  • 量词
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I didn't buy 'many' new shirts yesterday.




冠词的基本用法

冠词分为:

  • 不定冠词(a/an)
  • 定冠词(the)
  • 零冠词








代词

代词是用来代替名词或名词短语的。

代词可分为:

  • 人称代词: I, me, he…
  • 物主代词: my, their, yours…
  • 反身代词: myself, herself, themselves…
  • 指示代词: this, that, those…
  • 不定代词: some, many, each, any, all…
  • 疑问代词: what, which…
  • 关系代词: which, who(m), as, that…


人称代词

  • 主格人称代词在句子中一般用在谓语动词前面,充当句子的主语
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I think, therefore I am.


  • it也可以用来表示人,它一般表示要确认什么人,或在表示弄不清楚小孩儿的性别的时候
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There's a knock at the door. Who is 'it'?


  • 宾格人称代词可代替处于宾语位置上的名词,充当动词或介词的宾语。有些动词接两个宾语:直接宾语和间接宾语。直接宾语指动作的承受者,间接宾语指动作所向的人或物。间接宾语必须与直接宾语连用
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I gave 'him' a glass of water.
#him 为间接宾语
#a glass of water 为直接宾语


  • 使用人称代词时无论主格还是宾格,都应考虑到其所处的具体位置,在系动词be后也可以使用宾格,但不强调
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Who is 'it'?


  • 当人称代词处于同位结构中时,应与其同位的部分保持一致。也就是说当其同位的部分为主语时,其同位代词也为主语(用主格),而当其同位的部分为宾语时,所用代词也为宾语(用宾格)
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Both Jack an 'I' can swim very well.


  • 有时候,尤其在口语中,宾格人称代词me也可用作主语
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Me/Not me!


  • 注意祈使句中可用宾格人称代词作主语,起强调作用
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She's been promoted. Lucky 'her'!


  • 关于动物、东西和国家,人们通常将其人格化,这样它们也就具有了阴/阳性
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The cuckoo lays 'her' eggs in other birds' nests.


  • 当我们谈论汽车、船、摩托及其它机械时,常常把它们看做阴性
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My car's not fast, but 'she' does 50 miles to the gallon.


  • 国家通常也人格化,经常看成阴性
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In 1941, America assumed 'her' role as a world power.




不定代词

  • 不定代词指的是some, any, no, every…以及与之组成的复合词
    不定代词常常表示不确定的人、物或量。
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someone, anyone, none, everyone
somebody...
something...


  • 在表示一些时,some一般用于肯定陈述句中,而any则一般用于疑问句和否定句中
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There are 'some' frogs in the pond.

There aren't 'any' frogs in the pod.


  • 当表示建议或请求的时候,仍用some或something等
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Would you like 'something' to drink?


  • any或anything用于陈述句的肯定形式的时候,表示泛指概念,指任何
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You can choose 'anything' you like here.


  • 复合不定代词(如something, anything)等的定语一般应后置
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This is 'something' special.

Is there 'anything' for me to sit on?


  • 当需要排除概念时,经常将else与不定代词连用,构成如下组合词,表示另外的,别的之意
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everyone else, someone else, anyone else, anything else, nothing else...

We need one more helper. Can you find 'anyone else'?


  • 指代a/an + 可数名词时,则必须用one作宾语
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Would you like a drink?
I'd love 'one'. Thank you.


  • 当不可数名词或复数名词用于非特指时,则必须使用some或any作宾语
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Have you got 'any' sugar? Can you lend me 'some'?




物主代词

物主代词分为:

  • 形容词性物主代词(或所有格形容词)
  • 名词性物主代词(或所有格代词)
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形容词性: my, your, his, her, its, one's, our, your, their
名词性: mine, yours, his, hers,ours, theirs


形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词都表示所有,即某人或某物属于某个人,回答Whose…?的问题。形容词性物主代词是限定词,因此必须放在名词之前,不可单独使用。它们的形式取决于所有者,而不是被拥有的东西。

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John's daugther = his daugther

Jane's son = her son

the cat's milk = its milk


my, your, their可表示男性所有,也可表示女性所有。

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"My house is there," Sally/John said.

Your passports, please.


their也可表示动物或物品所有。

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Dogs should have their own kennels outside the house.

Cars with their engines at the back are very noisy.


one’s 可用作非人称形容词性物主代词,但不能用作名词性物主代词。

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One's first duty is to one's family.


所有格代词mine, yours不能用在名词之前,且在说话时要加重语气。它们在指人或物时,单数或复数都一样。its从来不作所有格代词用。

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There are my children. These children are mine.

I can't find my pen. Can you lend me yours?


名词性所有格可以放在句首。

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This is my cup. Yours is the one ttat's chipped.


在特别强调所有关系时,通常用one’s own。可以在任何形容词性物主代词而不是名词性物主代词后面加上own,这样形成的词组既可以起形容词性物主代词的作用,也可以起名词性物主代词的作用。

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I'd love to have my own room / a room of my own.

Our cat has its own corner / a corner of its own in this room.


如果需要再进一步强调则可以加上very。

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I'd love to have my very own room /a room of my very own.




反身代词

反身代词属于所有格形容词,其构成为”形容词性物主代词+self”组成的复合词,或”人称代词宾格+self”。

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单数: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, oneself
复数: ourselves, yourselves, themselves




指示代词

指示代词包括this, that, these, those。 其中, this, these为近指指示代词,与here对应; that, those为远指指示代词,与there对应。它们一般与名词连用。

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this girl, that boy, these teachers, those students


通常来说,单独用指示代词时,不指人而指物;但在Who…?问句中,也可指人。

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I found this watch. I found this.

Who's this? Who's that?








数量词

概述

数量词或数量词组常用来修饰名词,表示我们所说的事物的数与量。

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有些数量词修饰可数名词复数,如 many, (a) few, several...

有些数量词修饰不可数名词,如 much, (a) little...

有些两者皆可修饰,如 a lot of, lots of, some...


修饰可数名词时,用来回答How many…?

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How many eggs are there in the fridge?
There are a few.


数量词修饰不可数名词时,用来回答How much…?

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How much milk is there in the fridge?
There's a little.


两者皆可修饰,因此既能回答How many…? 也能回答How much…?

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How many eggs are there in the fridge?
There are plenty.

How much milk is there in the fridge?
There is plenty.


数量词+名词 的组合形式

搭配形式分类 同类数量词
数量词+复数可数名词
如: many books
both, a couple of, hundreds of, (a) few, a number of, serval …
数量词+不可数名词
如: much sugar
a amount of, a bit of, a drop of, a deal of, (a) little of …
数量词+复数可数名词,不可数名词
如: some books, some sugar
some, any, all, hardly, a lot of, lots of, the other …
数量词+单数可数名词
如: each book
another, each, either, the other, some, the whole …




不是不确定的数量

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#数量可以是确定的,也就是可确切地说出到底有多少
We need six eggs and half a kilo of butter.


#更多的时候,数量是不确定的,它只说明了一个大致的情况
Are there (any) apples in the bag?

There is some milk in the fridge.


#数量词后常和more连用
I'd like some more chips

I'd like some more milk.


#数量词后也常和less连用
Much less soup, please.

I want mush less, please.


#数量词前用not
Not enough is known about this subject.

It has given not a little trouble.




数词的分类

数词可分为:

  • 基数词
  • 序数词
  • 分数
  • 小数
  • 百分数


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#基数词
one, two, three...


#序数词
first, sixth, tenth...


#分数
#英语中分数的构成为: 一个基数词加一个序数词

#分子为1时,分母直接使用序数词;分子大于1时,分母序数词+s
one third, nine sixteenths


#小数
0.5, nought point five, point five
2.5, two point five
2.05, two nought five, two point o five


#百分数
8%, eight percent
99%, ninety-nine percent


#近似的数量
about, almost, exactly, fewer than, at least, less than, nearly ...

There wrer over seventy people at the party.




not, no, none, little, bit

  • not(any), no和none的区别

构成否定句的方式可以用not来否定动词,也可用no来否定后面的名词
none可以直接作为一个代词来用,而no则不可

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There aren't buses after midnight.

There are no buses after midnight.

Do you have any diaries? We've got none at the moment.


  • a great deal/amount of与a large/greate number of
    • a great deal/amount of都有much之意,其后应接不可数名词;
    • a great/large number of都有many之意,其后应接可数名词复数。
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A great deal/amount of money is spent on research.

A large/great number of our students are American.


  • (not) (a) little与(not) a bit及(a) few的区别
    • few和 a few; little和a little
      • (a) few用于修饰可数名词复数
      • (a) little用来修饰不可数名词
      • 不带不定冠词a时,两者都表示否定之意,强调少的概念
    • (a) little和(a) bit
      • 在肯定句中,它们几乎是通用的
      • 在否定句中,它们的含义正好相反
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He has had very few opportunities to practise his English.
He has very little hope of winning the race.

A lot of guests wre execpted, but few came.

There are only a few seats left.
There's only a little soup left.


I'd like a little/bit of time to think about it, please.

He was not a little surprised. # 他感到十分吃惊
I don't like the book, Not a bit. # 一点也不喜欢






enough

  • enough的基本意思是充足的。它既可修饰名词,也可修饰形容词和副词,还可做名词。修饰名词时放在名词前,修饰形容词放在形容词后。
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Is there enough hot water for me to take a bath?

Is the water hot enough for me to take a bath?


  • about, almost, hardly, less than, more than, nearly, not, not nearly, not quite scarcely等词常用来修饰enough。
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There are hardly enoush cakes.


  • 在特定上下文中,little和few也可以修饰enough,强调不够。
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I can't lend you money. I have little enough as it is.
I can't give you any stamps. I have few enough as it is.






both, all, either, neither, each, every, other, another

  • 这些不定代词中,either, neither, each, every只能修饰或代替单数名词
  • both, all一般修饰或代替复数可数名词。其中both表示两者都,通常适用于两者之间;而all表示全部,用于三者及以上
  • 一般来说,either表示两者必有其一;而both则表示两者都
  • 否定式用neither, nether…nor,注意当它们作主语时,谓语动词要和靠近谓语部分的名词或代词一致
  • 当both, all, each, either, neither用在代词前面时,其后必须加of
  • all和every都可表示泛指概念。all通常表示可视为一个整体的东西,或指一个总量;every则强调群体当中的每个单位,而且只用于修饰单数可数名词
  • 当使用not对all或both进行否定时,其否定结果为部分否定;无论not直接用在all/both之前还是用于否定动词上,都表示一样的意义。完全否定时,应该用no, none, neither
  • each和every的用法十分相似,经常可以通用。each更注重强调个体,every更侧重强调整体
  • another有两种意义:
    • 外加的/同样的
    • 不同的
  • another和other不是确指的,而the other(s)却是确指的
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All thirty passengers on the boat were saved.

Both of you told a lie.

Either of you is wrong.

Neither he nor I speak English. #他和我都不讲英语

Both of us left very early.
Neither of the girls left early.

I've read all these books.
I've read every book in the library.

Not all the girls left early.
None of the girls left early.
Neither of the girls left early. # 两个女孩都没有早走

Each child in the school was questioned.
Every child enjoys Christmas.

Do you need annother cup of coffee?
Give me another cup. This one's cracked.








形容词


形容词概述

形容词经常用于说明人或事物的性质,最为常见的是作名词的定语。

根据所描述的对象和意图的不同,又可分为多种类型。请看下表:

形容词类型 栗子
表质量 a beautiful lady
a fine/nine day
表大小 a big car、 a tall man
表新旧/老少 a young man
a new bag
表温度 a cool evening
a hot summer
表形状 a round table
a square box
表颜色 blue esys、grey hair
其他 a Swiss watch


形容词作表语,通常可以描述整个词组的意思。

Professor Robert’s lecture on magnetism was fascinating.
罗伯特教授的磁学讲得很精彩。

Yesterday, I bought a book. Books are not very expensive.
昨天我买了一本书。书不很贵。




复合形容词


用过去分词构成

a candle-lit table(一张点着蜡烛的桌子)、a tree-lined avenue(林荫大道)


用现在分词构成

a long-playing record(密纹唱片)、a time-consuming job(费时的工作)


用看上去是分词,实际上是用名词+ed合成的词构成复合形容词

slow-footed(脚步慢的)、quick-witted(机敏的)


表示度量的复合形容词

特征 栗子
年龄 a three-year-old building
an eighteen-year-old girl
面积/体积 a three-acre plot
a two-litre car
持续时间 a four-hour meeting
a two-day conference
长度/深度 a twelve-inch ruler
a six-foot hole
价格 a 50 dollar dress
时间/距离 a ten-minute walk
a three-hour journey
重量 a ten-stone man
a five-kilo bag of flour
带序数词 a first-rate flim
a second-hand car


用前缀或后缀构成的复合形容词

tax-free(免税的)、water-proof(防水的)




定语形容词和表语形容词

一般来讲,几乎所有的形容词都能作表语,但有些形容词却不能或不常作表语。

countless、digital、indoor、western、commanding、thankless…


有些形容词,如old, late, heavy等,既能作表语也能作定语,但表示的意思是不同的。

Jordan is old now.
乔丹现在已经老了。(old作表语,指年纪大)

Jepson is an old friend.
杰普森是一位老朋友。(old作定语,指相识的时间已经很久了)


有些形容词只能作表语而不能作定语,我们通常把这类形容词成为表语形容词。

表语形容词有以下三种:

  • 描述与健康有关的一些形容词。如:faint, ill, poorly, unwell, well…
    He’s ill.
    他病了。(ill作表语)

  • 很多以a开头的形容词,只能作表语而不能作定语。如:afloat, alight, awake, asleep, alone, afraid, ashamed…
    He ought to be ashamed.

  • 一些描述感觉、反应的形容词,只能作表语,而不能作定语。如:content, glad, pelased, sorry, upset, far…
    I’m very glad to meet you.




用在名词后的形容词

有些形容词常放到头衔名词的后面做修饰语。

Attorney General(检察总长)、Governor General(总督)、Heir Apparent(法定继承人)


还有一些固定搭配的词组,也是讲形容词置于所修饰的名词之后。

sum total(总计)、Asia Minor(小亚细亚)、hope eternal(永恒的希望)


有些形容词即可放在名词前也可放在名词后,但它们的意思通常有所改变。

如:concerned, elect, involved, present, proper, responsible…

Jones is a responsible girl.
琼斯是个有责任心的姑娘。

The girl responsible was expelled.
负有责任的那个姑娘被开除了。




the+形容词的用法

the+形容词表示作为整体的群体,谓语动词用复数。

the blind、 the poor/rich、the young/old…

The rich should help the poor.




形容词的词序

形容词的分级

  • 大多数形容词是可以分级的,即有比较级和最高级形式。
  • 但是,有一些形容词则不能分级,即没有比较级和最高级。它包括无分级形容词和极限形容词两种。
    • 无分级形容词:daily, dead, medical, unique
    • 极限形容词:excellent, perfect, favourite

Fishing is my favorite sport.


形容词比较级的构成

形容词的比较级和最高级的一般构成方法是:

  • 单音节形容词及少数双音节形容词直接在后面加-er-est构成比较级和最高级。
    如:clod, cloder, clodest…

  • 在以重读闭音节结尾的形容词中,当结尾是一个元音字母加一个辅音字母时,应双写其结尾的辅音字母后再加-er-est
    如:fat, fatter, fattest…

  • 有些形容词是以字母-e结尾,它们的比较级和最高级可在其后直接加-r-st
    如:fine, finer, finest…

  • 有些形容词是以字母-y结尾,而且在-y前面有一个辅音字母,这种形容词变为比较级和最高级时应首先把y变为i,然后再加-er-est
    如:tidy, tidier, tidiest…

  • 三个和三个音节以上的形容词变为比较级和最高级形式时通常在词的前面加moremost
    如:beautiful, more beautiful, most beautiful…

  • 还有一些形容词的比较级和最高级的变化是不规则的。
    如:good/well, better, best…


形容词比较级和最高级的用法

  • 当我们把一个人或事物与另一个人或事物进行比较时,用比较级。
    如: Jane is taller than Alice.

  • 将某一个范围内的一个人或事物和其他一个以上的人或物作比较时,用最高级。短语或句子中的形容词最高级钱要用定冠词the,副词则不必。
    如:John is the tallest.

  • 我们经常用more and more的句型来表示越来越…的意思。
    如:Alice is getting more and more beautiful.

  • 在表示越…就越…时,用the more...,the more...句型。
    如:The more money you make, the more you spend.

  • 可修饰形容词比较级的词
    形容词的比较级通常只有少数表示程度的词才能修饰。如:a bit, a little, a few, much, a lot, by far, even, still…
    Houses are much/far/a lot more expensive these days.

  • 可修饰形容词最高级的词
    如:almost, altogether, by far, much, nearly, quite, the very…
    This is quite/by far the most expensive bicycle in the shop.


形容词原级的常用句型

当使用as+形容词原级+as的句型时, 表示前后两者具有同等程度;其否定形式一般为not as/so+形容词原级+as,一般可理解为前者不如后者。
如: Jane is as tall/intelligent as Jones.








副词


副词概述

一般情况下,副词可以修饰动词、形容词、其它副词、介词短语…,具有对这些词进行补充说明的作用。

修饰对象 栗子
形容词 very good
awfully hungry
其它副词 very soon
awfully quickly
介词短语 You’re entirely in the wrong.
完整的句子 Strangely, I won first prize.




副词的常见构成形式

形容词+ly是最常见的副词构成形式。

如: beautiful, beautifully…


注意有些以-ly结尾的词,并不一定是副词,挡在名词后加-ly时,则一般构成形容词。
如:friendly(有好的)、daily(每日的)…




副词的比较等级

副词的比较等级与形容词的类似,由它构成的句型也大致一样,只是所修饰的对象不同。

She is the fastest girl.(fastest修饰女孩,为形容词最高级)
She runs fastest.(fastest修饰跑,为副词最高级。注意多数副词的最高级钱不能使用the)




方式副词

方式副词的位置通常有三种

  • 在句尾或宾语/动词之后
    Jane watched the small monkey curiously.(在宾语后)
    It snowed heavily last January.(在动词后)

  • 在主语和动词之间
    Bob angrily slammed the door behind him.

  • 用在句子开头
    Normally, our papers are delivered every morning.


有些方式副词,如:bravely, cleverly, cruelly, foolishly, kindly, simply, badly…当位置改变时,其强调的方面也随之变化。

He foolishly locked himself out.(强调他是个傻瓜)
He behaved foolishly at the party.(强调可笑的行为)




地点副词

常用的地点副词有: abroad, ahead, anywhere, everwhere, right, left, here, there, south, north, forwards…其位置一般用于方式副词后、时间副词前。

Indoors it was nice and warm. Outdoors it was snowing heavily.




时间副词

时间副词可分为表确定时间的副词和表不定时间的副词两种。

  • 表确定时间的副词:tomorrow, yesterday, last month…
  • 表不定时间的副词:already, another day, another time, at once, at last, early, eventually, formerly, immediately, just, recently, now, once…

表确定时间的的副词的位置一般在句首或句尾。
This morning I had a telephone call from Jane.
We checked in at the hotel this Monday.

表不定时间的副词的位置一般放在句首、句尾、实义动词之前和助动词或系动词be之后。
Recently the clavichord was damaged by a visitor.
By the way, have you seen Harry recently?
I was recently in NewYork.(系动词后)




already和yet

already一般不用在否定句和疑问句中,它的位置与非确定性频度副词相同。

This computer is out of date already.


yet一般用于疑问句和否定句中,通常放在句尾。

Have the new petrol prices come into fore yet?




频度副词

频度副词包括频度副词和频度副词短语

  • 频度副词:hourly、once、twice、weekly、fortnightlt、annually、never、seldom、usually…
  • 频度副词短语:three times a week、once a month…


确定性频度副词

如:once,twice,hourly,daily, on Fridays, three times a week…通常放在句尾。

I saw my girlfriend once a week.


非确定性频度副词,如果按频率的大小来排序的话,为

always>almost always>nearly always>fenerally/normally/regularly/usually>frequently>often>sometimes/occasionally>almost never/hardly ever/rately/scarcely ever/seleom>not…ever/never


表示否定意义的非确定性频度副词不能与not连用

We hardly ever see Mr. Lee these days.(不能说We don’t hardly ever…)


在肯定句和疑问句中的非确定性频度副词通常放在句子中间。大多数非确定性频度副词一般都位于助动词之后或实义动词之前。

I was never very good at maths.


非确定性频度副词也可放在句尾。

I get paid on Fridays usually.




程度副词

常用的程度副词有:quite, almost, altogether, barely, a bit, enough, fairly, hardly, nearly, rather, somewhat, too…这些词大部分用在所修饰的词语前面。

  • 修饰形容词: quite good
  • 修饰副词:quite quickly
  • 修饰动词:I quite like her
  • 修饰名词:quite an experience


fairly与rather

  • fairly通常表示褒义的概念,描述主语所期望的和具有积极意义的情况,表示事物处于好的状态。
    The lecture was fairly good.

  • rather比quite和fairly语气更强,往往含有过分的意思,通常用于描述主语所不愿意或消极的内容。
    He is clever but rather lazy.
    This jacket’s rather old.

  • rather可与比较级连用,而fairly一般不能。
    Jack earns rather more than his father.

  • rather可与too连用,强调过分的意思。
    This book is rather too easy for the college students.

  • 当与褒义的形容词连用时,rather含有惊人地意思。
    I did rather well in the test——better than I had expected.

  • rather在与名词连用时,其位置是灵活的,放在不定冠词前或不定冠词后君合;而fairly只能放在不定冠词后。








介词


概述

介词经常用在名词或名词短语、代词或动名词之前,用来表示人、物、事件等与其他人、物、事件之间的关系。

I gave the book to Jane.(介词+名词)
I gave the boo to her.(介词+代词)
Jane devotes her time to reading.(介词+动名词)


介词经常表示的关系如下

We ran across the field.(空间)
The plane landed at 6:55 p.m. precisely.(时间)
You unlock the door by turning the key to the right.




介词的形式

常见的介词的形式有两种

  • 单个词:at, from, in, to, into…
  • 介词短语:according to, apart from, because of…


介词后面的名词没有格的变化

The car stopped behind/in front of the girl.
He was very angry with me.




可兼作介词和连词的词

有些词既可作介词(其后接宾语),也可作连词(其后跟从句)。
如:as, after, till, since, before, untill…

Please come to me after 3 o’clock.(介词)
We went to the beach directly after we got up.(连词)




表示动态或静态的介词

有些介词,如:into, onto, out of…一般都与表示动作的动词连用,表示动态概念。

A bird flew into my bedroom this morning.
I drove out of the car park.


还有一些介词,如:near, above, behind, across, along, beside, between…与某些表示静态概念的动词连用时,表示静态;而与表示动态概念的动词连用时,则表示动态。

I waited in the hotel lobby.(静态)
He hurried across the street.(动态)




表示时间的介词和介词短语

介词at, in, on不仅表示地点,也表示时间。

Many tourists come here in summer. They usually come in July and in August.


用at的时间短语

at表示时间时一般表示具体的时间点,但也有例外。

适用情况 栗子
确切时间 at 10 o’clock
用餐时间 at lunch time
节日 at Christmas
年龄 at 18
其它时刻 at noon


用on的时间短语

on一般用于表示一整天的时间概念,如:on Monday…
但也有例外,如果在一段时间前面有定语修饰的时候,一般也用on。如:on Monday morning…
有些节目前也用on。如:on Christmas Day


用in的时间短语

in一般表示时间段,长短皆可。

适用情况 栗子
一天中的某段时间 in the evening
月份 in June
年份 in 1995
季节 in spring
世纪 in the 21st century
节日 in Easter Week
时期 in the holidays




动词+介词/副词小品词

动词+介词/副词小品词构成的短语动词是非常普遍的,而且短语动词的用法也特别合乎英语的行文习惯。


动词+介词/副词小品词的五种类型

类别 栗子
动词+介词(及物) get over (an illness)
动词+副词小品词(及物) bring up (the children)
动词+副词小品词(不及物) come out/break out
动词+副词小品词+介词(及物) run out of (matches)
动词+名词+介词(及物) take part in


在由动词+副词小品词构成的短语动词中,副词小品词的位置是比较灵活的。当其宾语是名词时,副词可以放在名词的前面或后面;当其宾语为代词时,则副词只可放在代词之后;但如果宾语比较长时,则应尽力避免把小品词与动词分开。

She turned off all the lights which had been left on.
This cat is too noisy, Take it out, please.


大部分动词+副词小品词形式的动词短语中,小品词与动词本身的意义是有一定联系的,或者有一定的参照性。
如: take off, pick up, take…away, come up, guess out…

但有些小品词与动词搭配时,动词本身已经没有什么实际意义,同一个动词在搭配了不同的小品词之后,其意思大相径庭。
bring up the children
bring off a deal


在英语中有些动词是不及物动词,当它们需要带宾语时必须通过后面跟介词的方式。

如:listen to, look at, ask for, wait for, look for…
She is waiting for her boyfriend.
You should ask for the bill.


一些不及物动词与小品词搭配之后,形成的仍然是不及物的短语动词。

Alice went out.
We set off very early.


动词+介词/副词小品词+宾语

如:dream of, think of, succeed in, insist on…
Your father insist on coming with us.
He dreamed of being a pilot.


使用动词+介词形式的短语动词时,不能把介词放在宾语之后。

Look at this picture.(不能说Look this picture at.)


使用由动词+介词to形式的动词短语时,to后不能跟不定式,而必须分名词或动名词。

I look forward to seeing you soon.


be used to后跟不定式和动名词时,所表达的意思是不一样的。

I’m used to getting up early in the morning.








动词


概述

动词是构成句子的必备元素,充当句子的谓语部分。根据其不同的用途,动词又可分为:

  • 及物动词、不及物动词;
  • 实义动词、情态动词、系动词、助动词;
  • 非谓语动词和谓语动词;


及物动词与不及物动词

有些动词,如:afford, allow, blame, bring, deny, need, get…,在使用的时候,其后必须跟宾语,称为及物动词;
有些动词,如:lie, occur, happen, rain, sleep…,在使用的时候,后面不能跟宾语,称为不及物动词。


有些不表示动作而表示状态(如感受、状况等)的动词称为状态动词。

如: like(喜欢)、think(认为)、love(热爱)、understand(理解)…

状态动词在使用的时候,一般不用于进行时态。
She loves/loved her baby more than anything else in the world.(不能说She is loving…)

有些动词则表示有意识或无意识的动作或者变化着的状态,称为行为动词。
I’m making a dress.


动词在使用的时候应注意人称的一致性和时态的变化。




助动词


助动词一般包括:am/is/are/was/were, have/has/had, do/does/did, will/would, shall/should,它们的功能主要是帮助动词完成时态、语态的变化。


助动词be的用法

  • 与现在分词构成现在进行时
  • 与过去分词构成被动语态


助动词have的用法

  • 与过去分词都成现在完成时
  • 与现在分词构成现在完成进行时
  • 与过去分词构成现在完成时的被动语态
类型 栗子
祈使句 Have a cup of coffee!
一般现在时 I always have milk in my tea.
现在进行时 We are having a nice time.
一般过去时 We had a lovely holiday last summer.
过去进行时 I was having a batch when the phone rang.
现在完成时 John has just had an accident.
现在完成进行时 The children have been having a lot of fun.
过去完成时 He went out to play basketball after he had finished his homework.
过去完成进行时 The file had been showing for 15 minutes when I got to the cinema.
一般将来时 I’ll have my hair cur tomorrow.
将来进行时 If anyone phones, I’ll be having a bath.
将来完成时 Tom will have had his exam by 18 Decembr.
将来完成进行时 She will have been having treatment for three months in the hospital by the end of this week.
情态动词 You could have a cup of coffee if you like.


助动词do的用法

助动词do最主要的用法有两个:

  • 与动词原形搭配构成一般现在时或一般过去时的疑问句和否定句
  • 用在实义动词前起强调作用

Do you do your shopping once a week? (构成疑问句,前一个do是助动词,后一个do是实义动词)
He didn’t know when to set off.(构成否定句)
The farmer did drive the cattle into the field.(表强调)




情态动词


概述

情态动词一般用于描述委婉、礼貌、客气、强令等特殊语气,达到表现说话人复杂心理及情感的目的。

情态动词包括: can/could, may/might, will/would, shall/should, must, ought to。另外,need和dare既可作实义动词也可作情态动词。


情态动词的主要功能

  • can/could主要指能力(不需要再努力)
    I can type.

  • may主要指允诺
    You may leave early.

  • will主要指预告、将要
    It will rain soon.

  • should/ought to主要指不可推卸的义务或责任
    You should/ought to do as you’re told.

  • must主要表示强令或不可推卸的责任
    You must be quite.

  • needn’t指没有义务,既可作可不做
    You needn’t wati.


情态动词也叫情态助动词,它像助动词be, do, have一样可以直接在后面加not构成否定句或将其提到主语前面构成疑问句。

You mustn’t move this table.(否定句)
Can I ask you some questions?(疑问句)
Can’t you see the picture?(否定疑问句)


情态动词每次只能用一个

We may call a doctor.
We must call a doctor.


如果需要同时表示两种意思,则要通过适当的解释。

It may be necessary (for us) to call a doctor.(may和necessary,同时表达了也许和必要两种意思)


情态动词的时态和语态

情态动词在形式上没有实义动词的各种变化,只有could, would, had to, wat/were to, might几个过去式。must和ought to过去式和现在式相同。

would, could, might, should在形式上都可以说是will, can, may, shall的过去式,但与它们的用法和意义却无多大关系。一般来说,情态动词的过去式往往可以表示更加委婉、客气等含义。当情态动词用于表示过去的状态或动作时,则是它们的过去时。
She says you can/will/may leave early.(现在时)
She said you could/would/miht leave early.(过去时)

情态动词should/ought to/could/must后接动词的完成时态时,往往可以表示一些特殊含义。
The lights in her roo were out 15 minutes before I came here, so she must have been out then.(表示对过去了的情况的推测)


can/could和be able to的区别

一般来说,can/could和be able to没有多大区别,经常可以互换。但can/could侧重于表示能力,而be able to则强调通过努力才能够…

I can operate a computer.
The girl is able to explain what had happeened to her.


can/could, may/might用于表示请求别人允许或答复的情况

can, may, could, might通常都可以表示请求别人允许的意思。
Can/Could/May/Might I borrow your umbrella?

但在使用的时候应该注意一下几点区别:

  • can最常用,但也最不正式
  • could比can更为犹豫和客气,通常用在补鞥你确定请求能否得到同意的时候
  • may比can和could更正式,而且更客气和恭敬
  • might显得最犹豫,也最客气而恭敬


用情态动词表示推测

在对所发生的的事情进行描述的时候,一般有肯定、可能和推测三种情况。

  • 如果说话人对所描述的事实确信无疑,就可以用be或任何实义动词直接描述。
    Jane is at home.
    He leaves at 9 p.m.

  • 如果说话人指的是可能发生的事情,就可以用may/might/could+动词原形的结构表示。
    Jane may/might be at home.

  • must+动词原形一般表示有根据而且是近乎肯定的推测;must一般用于肯定句,否定句和疑问句则通常用can/can’t+动词。在表示有根据但不太肯定的情况时则常常用may/might+动词。
    Jane’s light is on. She must be at home.(根据充分的肯定推测)
    She can’t be out.(有根据的否定推测)
    He may/might have left yesterday.(对过去情况的推测)

在表示推测时,其附加问句是通过情态动词后的动词形式来处理句尾的附加问句。并且,因为情态动词+动词的完成时表示对过去事实的推测,所以,有明确的的时间状语时,附加问句部分动词一般应用过去时的助动词;如果没有明确的时间状语,则可以采取have/has或did两种形式的任意一种。
She might have left.(无时间状语)
She might have left the day before yesterday.(有时间状语)


must, have to和have got to

这三种情况就其表示的意义而言,一般可以互换,但也有区别。用于第一人称时,must通常强调主观因素,或内在的因素;而have to, have got to则常常强调客观因素或外在因素。

用于其他人称时must表示不可推卸的责任,其迫切性往往要比have to/have got to还强。


may在套语中可表示祝愿或非常希望,may通常用在句首。

May God be with you.


作情态动词的need和dare

need和dare可以作为情态动词也可以作为实义动词。
Need you leave so soon?(情态动词)
You need to clean the bedroo.(实义动词)

dare可表示气愤的强烈语气。
How dare you!


would和used to

情态动词would和used to可以表示习惯或过去常常。
Jane used to make her own dresses.

used to强调过去常常…而现在已经不…
I used to smoke, but I don’t smoke any more.

used to be/have 可以描述过去的状态。
He used to be a postman a long time ageo.
I used to have beard, but I’ve shaved it off.




非谓语动词


概述

非谓语动词包括不定式、现在分词、过去分词和动名词。
非谓语动词在句子中,一般相当于形容词、副词或名词的作用,虽然仍有动作概念但不能直接充当谓语。

He wanted to find out the secret.(wanted为谓语动词,作该句的谓语;to find为不定式,为非谓语动词,作wanted的宾语)


不定式

不定式是非谓语动词中比较常用的一种。它通常由to+动词原形构成。有些情况下to可以省略。
动词不定式的用法也相当多,它既可以像名词那样在句子中充当主语、宾语或表语,也可以像名词那样充当定语,还可以像副词那样作状语,主要作目的状语和结果状语。

It’s easy to say. (不定式作真正的主语)
I’m waiting here to see the sunrise.(不定式作目的状语)
However, they have decided to use the post office.(不定式作宾语)
He seems to be fond of playing the guitar.(不定式作表语)
I have a lot of things to deal with today.(不定式作定语)

在有些情况下不定式小品词to是可以省略的。当不定式作let, have, make的补语时,不定式小品词to可以省略。
Let’s take a taxi.

但当这些词用于被动语态时,不定式的小品词to则不能省略。
The peasants were made to work ten hours a day.

help和know之后作补语的不定式小品词to可以省略亦可不省,而有时作其宾语的不定式小品词to可以省略亦可不省。
Mother helped me (to) do my homework.

被动的help和help所带的被动的不定式的区别:和let, have, make一样,当help为被动式时,其后的不定式小品词to必须有,但当help之后的动词是被动形式时,则不受此影响。
Jane wad helped to overcome her fear of flying.

并列不定式可以由and, or, but, except等连接。
Which do you prefer, to win a million US dollars or (to) have a brain like Einstein’s?

在并列不定式中,第二个to常可以省略,而只使用其纯并列部分。
I’d like to lie down and to to sleep.

叙述一些列动作时则多用不带to的不定式,或者叫省略不定式的符号to。
The crowd watched the firemen climb the ladder, break a window on the first floor, and enter the building.

动词+宾语作宾语补足语
feel(感觉)、hear(听见)、listen to(听)…动词后经常跟不带to的不定式或现在分词作补语。
I watched a pavement-artist draw a portrait in crayons.

带to的不定式。

It+is/was+形容词+of+名词/代词+带to的不定式it作为形式主语的用法比作人称主语的用法更为常见。
It’s very kind of her to help us.


动词的ing形式

动名词和现在分词皆由动词+ing构成,但是这两种词的用法却大不一样,动名词具有名词的性质,因此在句子中经常充当主语、宾语或表语;而现在分词具有形容词或副词的性质,因此在句子中充当定语、状语或补语。

动名词和现在分词虽然同形,但其作用是完全不一样的。动名词因为具有名词性质,因此常常可以做主语或宾语。而且,由于它是从动词变化而来,所以也可以在后面跟上自己的宾语。


过去分词

过去分词和现在分词一样,具有形容词或副词的功能,在句子中一般充当状语、定语、表语或补语。

现在分词和过去分词的区别。
一般来说,现在分词表示与其被修饰词之间是主动的关系,同时强调其动作时正在发生的;而过去分词则截然相反,它一般表示与其被修饰词之间是被动的关系,切强调动作为已经完成了的。


独立主格结构

独立主格结构是由名词/代词(逻辑主语部分)+逻辑谓语部分组成的,其逻辑谓语部分可以是现在分词、过去分词、不定式或介词短语。独立主格结构一般用于逻辑主语与句子的真正主语不同的句子中。








时态


概述

在英语中,动词时态的用法是尤其复杂和富于变化的。经常通过动词词尾、助动词等的变化来表明动作发生时间的先后顺序——即时态。总的来说,英语中动词的时态分为三个基本类型:过去、现在和将来。动词时态的变化常常伴随着相应的表示时间或频度的状语。

He often goes to the Great Wall.
He went to the Great Wall yesterday.
He will go to the Great Wall tomorrow.


判断谓语动词的时态,除了借助于时间或频度副词之外,通常还要考虑句子的上下文,利用各个动作的时间先后或因果关系来确定动词的时态。

He tells me he plays table tennis well.(他现在打得好)
He told me he played table tennis well.(他过去打得好)
He told me he plays table tennis well.(他现在仍然打得好)




一般现在时

一般现在时可用于陈述现在时间内发生或存在的事件、动作或情况。这些事件、动作或情况也可能会无限期地延续下去。

一般来说,一般现在时可以用于以下几种情况:

  • 一般现在时可以陈述永恒的真理。
    Summer follows spring.

  • 一般现在时可用于现阶段内发生的情况。
    My father works in a school.

  • 表示习惯性动作,通常表示不断重复的动作。
    I get up at 7:00 a.m.

  • 当谈论的是关于时间表、节目单或日程表上所安排好的事情的时候,通常用现在时表示将来的意义。
    The exhibition opens on January 1st and closes on January 31st.

  • 一般现在时中,当主语为第三人称单数时,其谓语动词后面要加-s,变化方法如下:

    • 多数动词一般在词尾直接加-s,如:buy, buys
    • 以字母-o, -s, -x, -ch, -sh结尾的动词词尾加-es,如:do, does
    • 以辅音字母+-y结尾的动词变y为i,再加-es。如:fly, flies


当使用了频度副词,如always、never、usually、rarely…副词短语every day, every week…,这种现在时可使习惯性动作表现得更加明显。

I sometimes stay up till midnight.
She visits her parents every day.




一般过去时

一般过去时通常表示过去某一时间发生的而现在已经结束的动作、事情或状态,常和表示过去某一时间的状语yesterday、just now, at that time…连用

In the early days of the settlement of Australia, enterprising settlers unwisely introduced the European rabbit.


动词过去式的构成规则

  • 在动词原形后直接加-ed。如:open, opened
  • 动词以-e结尾,则只加-d。如:die, died
  • 动词以辅音+-y结尾,则去-y再加-ied。如:try, tried


规则动词过去式词尾-ed的读音

  • 在以浊辅音或元音结尾的动词后读[d]。如:saved
  • 在以清辅音结尾的动词后读[t]。如:shopped, asked
  • 在以-t-d结尾的动词后读[id]。如:visited, wanted
  • 不规则动词(约150个)与规则动词不同,它们的过去式基本上无规则可循,需记忆。如:sit, sat


一般过去时通常和表示过去的时间连用,有时没有具体的过去时间,需要通过上下文判断时间。

I travelled to Portsmounth by bus yesterday. I got on the bus and sat down.


若所给信息影响了时间限定,则必须给出时间状语。

I received the magazine I ordered last week.


时间状语从句可以起到描述过去时间背景的作用。

When the article arrived, the editor read the first sentence and then refused to publish it.




一般将来时

一般将来时通常由shall, will或be going to加上动词原形构成。will可用于所有人称,shall只用于第一人称。在口语中,shall和will的区别常被忽略,因为他们的缩略形式都是'll

I shall/will see you tomorrow.
I’ll see you tomorrow.

  • 在口语中,缩略形式'll常用于代词之后。如:He’ll wash these dishes soon.
  • 否定式will not和shall not的缩略形式分别为won’t和shan’t。如:I/We won’t/shan’t go to the market.


be going to表示将来的用法

  • 在非正式文体中,表示意图、打算时,一般将来时多用be going to而不常用will。
  • 表示将来而不借助于时间状语来表达时,这种情形常指马上或不久的将来。
  • 也可与表示将来的时间状语连用。
  • 可用来代替直接表达打算的动词


在条件句中一般将来时通常由一般现在时表达,即主句为一般将来时,从句为一般现在时。

If he is out, I‘ll call tomorrow.
I shall wait here until he comes.




现在进行时

现在进行时由be+动词的现在分词构成。它表示说话时正在进行的动作或事件,往往与now、at the moment、just…表示现在的时间状语连用。

Someone’s knocking at the door. Can you answer it?


现在进行时也可以描述暂时的情况或动作,强调这一动作或情况短时间内正在进行。

What’s your son doing these days?


现在进行时在与副词always、constantly、continually、forever、perpetually、repeatedly…连用时,表示不断重复的动作。

She’s always helping people.


现在进行时所描述的动作或事情发生得过多时,则有时含有抱怨的意思。

Our burglar alarm is forever going off for no reason.




过去进行时

过去进行时表示过去某时正在进行的动作或状态,不一定需要时间状语。

His wife was sitting beside him holding a large cake.


过去进行时和以all开头的状语(all night)一起使用,强调动作的连续性。

It was raining all day.


过去进行时表示某事发生前已经开始的动作。在这种情况下,过去进行时常和一般过去时在同一个句子里使用。过去进行时表示当时正在进行的动作或情况,一般过去时则表示比较短暂的动作或事件。正在进行中的动作或情况常常和连词when、as、just as、while…等引导的时间状语从句连用。

When I was watering the garden, it began to rain.


过去进行时表示并行的动作,经常与while或at the time连用,强调同时进行的两种或几种动作。

While I was working in the garden, my wife was cooking dinner.


meanwhile经常用于描述正在进行的动作。

Meanwhile, the editor was getting impatient, for the magazine would soon go to press.


过去进行时和used to 在使用时应注意的问题

过去进行时表示过去某个时间正在发生的动作;而used to +不定式表示一个动作或状态时过去的习惯,但并没有持续到现在。

I used to go to work by bus, but I go by car now.




现在完成时

现在完成时主要有以下几种方法:

  • 表示开始于过去并持续到现在的动作(也许还会持续下去)。它常和for+一段时间since+某个时间点连用。
    He has been there for six months.

  • 表示在过去不确定的时间里发生但对现在仍有影响的动作。
    I have read the book, but I don’t understand it.

  • 表示刚刚完成的动作,可以与recently、just等连用。
    I have been reported in Russia Recently of people who can read and detect colours with their figers, and even see through solid doors and walls.

  • 表示最近发生的动作,常和副词already(用于肯定句)和yet(用于否定句和疑问句)连用。
    Has she arrived yet?

  • 描述重复动作
    Historians have long been puzzled by dots, lines, ans symbols which have been engraved on walls, bones, and the ivory tusks of mammoths.

  • 表示结论性的陈述也常常使用现在完成时
    On the whole, business has been very good this year.


在现在完成时中,要注意have gone和have been的区别

He has gone to Alice Springs.(在那儿或在去那儿的路上)
He has been to Alice Springs.(曾经去过那儿,但现在不在那)


一般过去时和现在完成时的区别

一般过去时的时间概念时明确的,我们关心的时过去的时间或过去的结果。而现在完成时的时间概念有时是不明确的,我们所关心的是现在的结果,或过去发生的事对现在的影响。




过去完成时

过去完成时的主要用法时表示两个事件中过去一个动作开始之前另一个动作已经完成,前面发生的动作用过去完成时来表示。

The patient had been dead when the doctor arrived.


当句子中有after等能够暗示时间先后顺序的状语从句出现时,通常可以明确地说明主句与从句动作的先后关系。如果主句为过去时,那么从句中的动作就形成了过去的过去,因此表示从句动作的动词常常使用过去完成时。

After her husband had gont to work, Mrs. Richards sent her children to school and went upstaits to her bedroom.


但在谈及过去不同时间所发生的的两个动作时,并非总是要将先发生的动作用过去完成时表示。当按动作发生的顺序进行描述时,通常使用一般过去时即可。

Mary said some tather norrible things to me; I felt pretty upset, but tried not to think about thme too much.


当我们要强调过去时间以后的动作,而只想将发生再次动作之前的动作作为临时性过渡时,这一动作通常用过去完成时表达。这样使用时,并没有强调多去完成时表达的动作之意。

I felt pretty upset because of what Mary had said, but I tried not to think about it too much.


在过去完成时中,表示之前概念时不能使用ago,而必须使用before。因为前者用于表示时间的起点是现在,而后者描述的时间起点则为过去的时间概念。因此,前者一般适用于一般过去时,而后者可以用于过去完成时。

A week before, he had completed a successful overland flight furing which he covered 26 miles.


过去完成时的作用有时完全相当于现在完成时的过去形式,在间接引语中这种情况尤其多。

Juliet is excited because she has never been to a dance before.
Juliet was excited because she had never benn to a dance before.


过去完成时被动语态为had+been+过去分词

When she came, the room had already been cleaned.


no sooner…than和scarcely/barely/hardly…when表示某件事仅随着另一件事发生。




现在/过去完成进行时

现在/过去完成进行时由have、has/had been + 现在分词构成,所描述的动作主要强调以下几种情况:

  • 表示动作在某一段时间内一直在进行
    She is very tired, she’s been typing letters all day.

  • 表示持续性的动作
    I have been learning English.

  • 表示经常重复的动作
    Jim has been phoning Jenny every night for the last week.

  • 描述通过直接或间接的证据得出的结论。

Your eyes are red. You’ve been crying.




过去将来时

过去将来时是由was/were going to, was/were about to, was/were to, was to have + 过去分词, was/were on the point of, was/were due to和would等来表示。

We were about to leave when a car drove up.


表示无法预见结果

Little did they know they were to be reunited ten years later.


过去将来时也可以表示过去因故中断的动作,通常用just ... when形式

We were just going to leave when Jean fell and hurt her ankle.


was going towas to have + 过去分词的异同

I was going to see Mr. Kay. 我要去看凯先生(可能见到,也可能没见到)
I was to have seen Mr. Kay. 我本来要去见凯先生(没有见到他)








被动语态


概述

在英语中,语态分为两种:主动语态和被动语态,它们都是指动词的形式而言。在主动句中,句子的主语时执行动作的人或物。

John cooked the food last night.


在主动语态中强调的是执行动作的人或物,即主语时动作的执行者;而在被动语态中强调的是接受动作的人或物,即主语时动作的承受者。

This bridge was built in 1942.


被动语态所强调的是动作的承受者而不是动作的执行者。因此,有时为了把话说得谨慎些,可以使用被动语态。

Muriel pays less income tax than she should.


为了使句子的结构更加平稳、严谨,经常使用下列三种被动结构:

  • It is/was + 动词过去分词 + that 引导的从句
    It is said that there is plenty of oil off our coast.

  • There + 动词 + to be + 补足语
    There is suppsed to be a train at 12:37.

  • 除it意外的主语 + 动词 + 带to的动词不定式
    Tuner was considered to be a genius even in his lifetime.


被动语态所强调的对象是动作的承受者,即行为客体。如果需要说明动作的执行者即行为主体时,常常可以用by+行为主体的结构表示。

The windows was broken by the boy who lives opposite.

It was composed by Mozart.




被动语态的构成

在被动语态中,句子的主语是动作的承受者。被动语态的形式由相应的助动词加上动词的过去分词构成。

The food was cooked last night.


被动语态的构成形式分为:

  • 一般现在时的被动语态: am/is/are + 过去分词
  • 一般过去时的被动语态: was/were + 过去分词
  • 现在进行时的被动语态: am/is/are + being + 过去分词
  • 现在完成时的被动语态: have/has + been + 过去分词
  • 过去进行时的被动语态: was/were + being + 过去分词
  • 一般将来时的被动语态: be going to/ will/ shall + be + 过去分词
  • 过去完成时的被动语态: had been + 过去分词




不定式的被动语态

主语+谓语+宾语+不定式结构中,当动词时被动语态时,其后的不定式可保持主动语态。

He told me/I was told to wait for him.


当含有被动含义时,不定式本身能变成被动语态。

He never expected te bicycle to be found.




情态动词的被动语态

情态动词的被动语态是在will, can, must等情态动词后加 be + 过去分词构成。

Your watch will/can/must/should be repaired.




分词结构的被动语态

现在分词的被动语态由being+过去分词构成,它的完成式由having been + 过去分词构成。

He hates to be criticized.
I was worried about you all night.








直接引语和间接引语


直接引语

一字不改地引述别人的话,叫直接引语。

“Why don’t we go sailing?” Diana said.


如果通过第三者进行转述,可以不用引号。

Diana suggested they should go sailing.


当把直接引语变为间接引语的时候,人称、时态、时间状语、地点等通常都应发生相应的变化。




间接引语

说话人用自己的话转述别人的话,叫间接引语。间接引语需要由动词引述,因此这种动词称为引述动词。如say、tell、ask、declare…


动词tell、say…通常引述间接引语。tell后面必须跟人称间接宾语(tell sb…),而say后面则可跟或不跟to引导的讲话对象。

He tells me/syas to me (that) he’s very busy.


直接引语变成间接引语时,其谓语动词时态变化规则如下:

  • 当引述动词为现在或将来时态时,间接引语的时态不变。
    He says, “I’m tired.”
    He says he is tired.

  • 当引述动词为过去时态时,间接引语的时态则一般应作为相应的变化,即时态的呼应。规则如下:

    • 直接引语中的一般现在时,间接引语要变成一般过去时。
      He said, “I never work on Sundays.”
      He said he never worked on Sundays.
    • 直接引语中的现在完成时,在间接引语中要变为过去完成时。
      Sylvia said, “I’ve moved to another flat.”
      Sylvia said (that) she had moved to another flat.
    • 直接引语中的一般过去时,在间接引语中则通常变为过去完成时,当然不排除仍用一般过去时。
      “I moved to anther flat,” she said.
      She said she moved to another flat.
    • 直接引语为现在进行时,间接引语变为过去进行时。
      She said, “he’s waiting.”
      She said (that) he was waiting.
    • 直接引语为过去进行时和过去完成时,间接引语变为过去完成进行时或不变。
      “I was waiting for hours before you arrived,” he told Harriet.
      He told Harriet that he had been waiting for hours before she arrived.
    • 直接引语为一般将来时,间接引语为过去将来时。
      “Where are you going?” he asked.
      He asked (us) where we were going.
    • 直接引语为含情态动词的一般现在时,间接引语中情态动词变为一般过去时,如: shall/will变为would; can变为could…
      “I can/will/may see you later,” he said.
      He said he could/would/might see me later.
    • 当must指过去时,可以不变;如果是指“不可推卸的义务”时,在间接引语中也可由had to代替。
      “I must warn you of the consequences,” He said.
      He told me (that) he must/had to warn me of the consequences.
    • 如果直接引语内容为普遍真理,主句谓语时过去时,变成间接引语时,引语部分时态不变。
      “Light travels faster than sound,” the teacher said to his students.
      The teacher told hist students that light travels faster than sound.


直接引语变成间接引语时,人称、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语也应有相应的变化。

  • 代词的变化
    I->she/he, me/you->him/her/I…

  • 时间状语的变化
    now->then, ago->before…

  • 地点状语的变化
    here->there, this place-> that place…


直接引语为特殊疑问句,在变为间接引语时,其引导词应用疑问代词或特殊副词。ask可以转述疑问句,包括一般疑问句和特殊疑问句。

“When will Jack arrive?” Tom asked.
Tom asked when Jack would arrive.


除了ask之外,转述疑问句(包括一般疑问句和特殊疑问句)的动词还可以是want to know, see, say, tell, wonder, inquire(较正式)

  • 如果直接引语为选择疑问句,变为间接引语时,应有whether…or…
    They asked me whether I was ill or not.
    They asked whether I was ill or just lazy.

  • 如果直接引语为一般疑问句,间接引语中用if或whether引导。
    “Have you been abroad?” Mary asked.
    Mary asked me whether we had been abroad.


当直接引语为祈使句时,间接引语中通常要用tell, order, command, ask等代替直接引语中的say,并且动词后要用“名词/代词+不定式”结构。

“Open the door for me, please.” She said (to me).
She asked me to open the door for her.


动词insist和suggest不能用于“名词/代词+不定式”结构,其后通常要跟一个“that从句+(should)+动词原形”的结构。

“You really must stay and have lunch,” he said.
He insisted that I (should) stay to have lunch.








倒装句


概述

倒装句分为:

  • 完全倒装句:指谓语动词完全在主语之前;
  • 部分倒装句:通常是说相应的助动词在主语前面,而谓语动词仍在主语后面。

Here comes the taxi! (The taxi comes here.)
Seldom did I go to the cinema.(助动词did提到主语前)




完全倒装句

当地点副词如here、there以及back、down、off、up…在句首时,要求句子为完全倒装。

Down came the rain and up the umbrellas.


但是,当主语为代词时,主谓并不倒装。

There comes the bus.(主语为名词,主谓应倒装)
There she goes.(主语为代词,主谓不倒装)


地点状语在句首时一般也要完全倒装。

At the top of the hill stood the tiny chapel.


定语从句中,也有少数情况适用这个规则。

We arrived at a farm house, in front of which sat a girl.


此规则也适用于被动语态。

In the distance could be seen the purple mountains.




部分倒装句

当表示否定概念的副词,如:little, seldom, hardly, scarcely, never…,在句首时,要求使用部分倒装句。部分倒装句指的是谓语动词位置不变,而其相应的助动词要放在主语前面。

Little does he realize how important this meeting is.


但是,当否定副词不在句首时,则不倒装。

Never do cats fail to facinate human beings.


当only修饰状语或状语从句时,要求部分倒装;但当only不修饰状语而修饰其他成分时,则不倒装。

The pilot reassured the passengers. Only then did I realize how dangerous the situation had been.(修饰时间状语,因此需要倒装)
Only girls are permitted to enter the theatre.(only修饰名词girls,所以不倒装)


关于so和such的倒装句

  • so和such在句首时也可引起部分倒装,通常可以分为两种情况:

    • so+形容词+从句/such+从句
      So sudden was the attack (that) we had no time to escape.
    • 在表示与前面句子有相同情形时,常用”so+倒装”结构
      He likes fishing. So do I.
  • 当前面的句子为否定形式时,则应用”neither/nor+倒装句”,而不是使用”so+否定形式”。
    She doesn’t like dancing, nor/neither do I.

  • 当前面句子中的动词出现并列,而且形式不统一时,后面的句子需要用so it is/was with结构。
    He was once a soldier and enjoyed hunting, so it was tieh me.


在as引导的让步状语从句中,需要倒装其表语、宾语或状语部分。

Much as we may pride ourselves on our good taste, we are no longer free to choose the things we want.








虚拟语气

概述

虚拟语气一般表示说话人的主观愿望、推测等,而非客观情况,常用在非真实条件句当中。

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# 非客观事实
How I wish I were a bird.

If I were you I would buy this book.






虚拟语气的基本形式

  • 虚拟语气根据其所表达意思的不同也有各种时态的变化。

如果所描述的情况与目前事实不符,用现在虚拟语气;
所描述的情况与将来的情况可能不符时,用将来虚拟语气;
而当所描述的情况与过去发生的情况不符时,则用过去虚拟语气。

主/从句中的动词形式
时态分类
主句中的动词形式 从句中的动词形式
与现在事实相反 should/would/could/might + 动词原形 动词的过去式(be一般用were)
与将来事实相反 should/would/could/might + 动词原形 动词的过去式、were to + 动词原形或should + 动词原形
与过去事实相反 should/would/could/might + 动词的现在完成式 动词的过去完成式
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# 与现在事实不符
If I were you, I should try it again.

If you had gone to the exhibition, you would have enjoyed it.


  • might/should/ought to + 动词的完成时态 结构表示过去可能发生而没有发生的事情。
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We should have caught the first train if we had got up earlier.


  • wish与if only引起的虚拟语气

在英语中,可用wish或短语if only表示愿望,两者往往可以互换。if only侧重于强调所希望的情况并不存在;而wish则通常表示所希望的事情有可能发生。

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I wish/If only Tessa were here now.

I wish you wouldn't.

I wish he would come tomorrow.






宾语从句中的虚拟语气

  • 当wish, would rather/had better后接宾语从句,或在 It’s time that从句结构中,要使用虚拟语气,其虚拟语气的动词应为过去式/过去完成式,表示与现在/过去事实相反。
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I wish you saw the exhibition.

I'd rather she sat next to me.


  • would rather/sooner + 从句时,从句通常使用虚拟语气。
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I would rather Jack take the former train.


  • would rather/sooner + 从句结构也可以用于表示和过去的情况相反。
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I'd rather he hadn't told me about it.


  • suggest, propose, advise, insist, command, order, require, request和recommend等动词,在引导宾语从句时通常使用虚拟语气。

上述动词一般表示使令概念,因此它所要求的宾语从句当中的动作未必一定能实现,符合虚拟语气所表达的概念特点,其虚拟语气的谓语动词为should + 动词原形,但should常可以省略。

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To save time, I suggest we meet at the restaurant.






主语从句中的虚拟语气(It’s vital/essential + that 从句等引导的虚拟语气)

表示重要、必要等意义的形容词,如important, vital,essential,necessary,desirable等,从句中的谓语用should + 动词原形。

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Was it essential that my uncle be informed?

It is vital that we should control the spread of malaria.






由as if/though 引导的虚拟语气

  • 当as if/though 进行非事实的比喻或夸张时,经常可以引导虚拟语气。
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The old machine runs as if it were a new one.

He talked about Japan as if he had been there for many times.


  • as if也可以用在句首,表示惊讶、不满、气愤的语气。
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As if we were all stupid and he alone clever!


  • 如果as if表示的是一种真实的情况,应该用正常语气。
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It looks as if it is going to rain soon.






虚拟语气中的倒装结构

在虚拟条件中,可以使用倒装结构的形式代替if。

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Should you change your mind, let us know.

Had I realized what you intended I should not have wasted my time trying to explain matters to you.








it的用法

it作非人称代词

  • it指前面已经提到过的人或物时,作真实主语。
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What a beautiful baby, is it your nephew?


  • it在句子当中作非人称代词时,常常用来表示时间、天气、温度、度量衡、距离等,因为在这种情况下它没有实际意义。
适用范围 栗子
时间、季节 It’s Spring Festival today.
天气、气候 It’s hot, though it’s raining.
温度 It’s 33 centigrade in the room.
距离、度量 It’s 10 KM to Paris.
环境 It’s noisy in here.
现状 Isn’t it a shame!
与since/says等连用 It’s 3 years since we last met.
It says there was an earthquake in Japan yesterday.






it作形式主语

当不定式、动名词或名词从句作主语时,为了使句子的结构更加平稳、对称,我们经常使用it作形式主语,后面接不定式、动名词或名词从句作真正主语。

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It is pleasant to lie in the sun.

It doesn't matter when we arrive.






it用在强调句中

强调句也叫分裂句,它通常可以用于强调某个词或短语。其结构为It is/was + 被强调的对象 + that 或 who(m)从句,其中that可用于引导强调任何内容的从句,who(m)只用于强调人的从句。

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It was Freda who/that phoned Jack last night.
It was last night that Freda phoned.






it作形式宾语

it + 形容词 可用在像find一类的动词之后作形式宾语或先行宾语,再接作真正宾语的动词不定式或that引导的从句。

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Tom finds it diffcult to concenrate.

Jones thinks it funny that I've taken up yoga.






it的一些搭配

it还可用在enjoy, like, love, hate等动词后。

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I don't like it when you shout at me.






It seems that/is possible that从句

这种从句中it常常充当先行主语。

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It seems that he forgot to sign the letter.








句子

概述

  • 句子是一个完整的意义表述单位,通常由主语和谓语动词及其它附加成分组成。句子的主语可能藏而不漏。
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They arrived.

Open the door, please.


  • 由一个单词构成的或缩略的话同样也是一个完整的意义单位,特别是在口语或书面对话中尤为常见。
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Good.

All right!

Want any help?


  • 就其功能来说,句子是可以在基本句型的基础上进行扩充的。
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The man ran away.
The man who stole the money ran away.






简单句

  • 简单句是最小的句子单位。简单句一般只有一个谓语动词,并且由一个主谓结构组成。
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Last week I went to the theatre.


  • 简单陈述句的语序很重要,否则表达的意思不同。
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The police arrested the thief.

The thief arrested the policeman.


  • 一个简单陈述句可以包含五个部分: 主语、谓语、宾语或表语、补语、状语。状语可以根据需要放在句尾、句中或句首。
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I(主) enjoyed(谓) the film(宾) yesterday(状).

They(主) appointed(谓) him(宾) chairman(宾补).


  • 有时,简单句中主语、谓语及宾语会通过连词(and, or, but, both and, either or, neither nor等)串接起来,从而形成主语、谓语、宾语并列的形式。
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The boss and his secreteary(并列主语) are flying to Paris.

I met Jane and her husband(并列宾语).

We sang and danced(并列谓语) all night.


  • 在英语中,状语是使用最频繁和最富变化的,它能使语言描述更加具体、形象、生动。
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In those days(时间状语) wandering minstrels(主语) were welcome(谓语) everwhere(地点状语)。

Editors of newspapers and magazines(主语) often(频度状语) go to extremes(谓语) to provide their readers(目的状语) with unimportant facts and statistics(方式状语).


  • 英语中常会出现同位语,它通常与所说的此有对等的关系。
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This was the Vasa, royal flagship of the great imperial fleet.


  • 根据动词后面所使用的不同成分,简单句可分为五种基本句型。
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# 主语+动词
My head aches.


# 主语+动词+主语补足语
# 主语补足语通常出现在被动语态中。当还原为主动语态时,主语补足语则变成宾语补足语。
Trump was made President of the U.S.A.
Americans make Trump President of the U.S.A.


# 主语+动词+直接宾语
My sister enjoyed the play.


# 主语+动词+间接宾语+直接宾语(双宾语)
# 直接宾语一般表示物,而间接宾语则表示人
# 通常间接宾语在前,直接宾语在后
The firm gave Sam a watch.


# 主语+动词+宾语+宾语补足语
They made Sam chairman.






并列句

  • 并列句一般是由并列连词(and, but, so, yet等),分号或分号后跟一个并列连接副词(however, above, all, as far as等),将两个或两个以上的简单句连接而成。
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# 用并列连词连接
You can wait here adn I'll get the car.


# 用分号连接
We fished all day; we didn't catch a thing.


# 分号后再跟连接副词
We fished all day; however, we didn't catch a thing.


  • 并列句中不存在单独的主句和从属于它的从句。各并列句根据上下文的要求按逻辑顺序排列,但各个并列句均同等重要并且独立存在。
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The swimmer seemed to be in diffculty, but he managed to reach the shore in the end.

I saw him yesterday but he did not greet me.






复合句

  • 英语中复合句的使用最为广泛,在书面语中更是如此。
    复合句的构成方法通常是用从属连词,如if/unless引导条件状语从句、because/as/since表示原因、when/while/as soon as/until表示时间、where表示地点、although/though/as表示让步…把简单句连接起来。其中包括一个独立的简单句(主句)和一个或几个从属简单句(从句)。主句可以单独存在。
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The alarm was raised(主句) as soon as the fire was discovered(从句).


  • 复合句从其作用上来说大致分为三个类型。
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# 状语从句
However hard I try, I can't remember people's names.


# 名词性从句
He told me (that) the match had been cancelled.


# 定语从句
All the things (that) I had packed so carefully were soon in a dreadful mess.






状语从句

状语从句在句子中可以说明事情发生的时间、地点、原因、方式、结果、目的等,用相关的从属连词引导。

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The children ran away after they had broken the window.

As soon as the sun set we returned to our hotel.

He missed the train because he did not hurry.


  • 时间状语从句

时间状语从句一般回答when的问题,并且可以由下列从属连词引导(when, after, as soon as, before, by the time…)当状语从句位于句首时,后常用逗号隔开。

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You didn't look very well when you got up this moring.

When he got married, Alf was too embarrassed to say anything to his wife adout his job.

Whenever I meet his, he always talks about his personal problems.

The moment he arrives, I shall let you know.


  • 地点状语从句

这类从句回答where的问题,可由where, wherever, anywhere等连词引导。地点状语从句一般置于主语之后。

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You can't camp anywhere you like these days.

Everywhere Jenny goes she's mistaken for Princess Diana.


  • 方式状语从句

这类从句回答how问题,它可以由as和(in) the way引导。方式状语从句一般置于主句之后。be, act, appear, behave,sound…等后面通常用as if 和 as though。

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I feel as if/as though I'm floating on air.

It feels as if it's going to rain.

The fish isn't cooked as I like it.


  • 原因状语从句

原因状语从句回答由why引导的问题,由以下从属连词(because, as, seeing, since…)引导。

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As/Because/Since there was very little support, the strike was not successful.

I'm afraid we don't stock refills for pens like yours because there's little demand for them.


  • 条件状语从句

条件状语从句表示动作发生的条件,通常由连词(if, on condition that, unless, as/so long as…)引导。

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If you see him, will you tell him about it?

If I lose my job, I will go abroad.
If the weather clears, we'll go for a walk.

If you went to the exhibition you would enjoy it.

If I had been in your position, I would have acted differently.

If it rains tomorrow, we'll stay at home.


  • 让步状语从句

让步状语从句含有使句子有对比的意义。引导让步状语从句的常用连词有: although, considering, though/as, even if, even though, while, whereas, no matter how, however…

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While I disapprove of what you say, I would defend to the death your right to say it.

I told him to report to me after the job was completed, no matter how late it was.

# though多用于正式的口语或书面语, although用于各种文体
Although/Though the factory is small, its products are of very good quality.






名词性从句

名词性从句在句子中起名词的作用,可以作主语、宾语、表语及同位语。因此从功能上将其定义主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。


  • 主语从句

主语从句通常由which, who, that, what, when, where, whether等引导,在句子当中一般充当主语。

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Whether we find a joke funny or not largely depends on where we have been brought up.

It has been said that everyone lives by selling something.


  • 宾语从句

名词性从句作宾语时,前面的that经常被省略,特别是在非正式文体中更是如此。

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Everyone knows (that) money doesn't grow on trees.


  • 同位语从句

跟在fact, idea, news, information, thought…后面的名词性从句通常是同位语从句。同位语从句中的that不能省略且不作任何成分,从含义上来说,它对其所修饰的词具有同等解释的作用。

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The fact that his proposal makes sense should be recognized.




定语从句

  • 定语从句通常由关系代词(who, whom, which, that, whose)或关系副词(where, when, why)等引导。

从形式上来说,它通常分为两种情况:
限制性定语从句(它一般提供被修饰名词的重要信息,对中心词起修饰作用,不能省略。这种定语从句与其修饰的词之间一般没有逗号隔开。)
非限制性定语从句(它提供补充性信息,对其中心词起补充说明作用,可以省去。这种关系从句与其所修饰的词之间一般要有逗号隔开。)

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# 限制性
The government which promises to cut taxes。

# 非限制性
The government, which promises to cut taxes, will be popular.


  • 定语从句中关系代词和关系副词的使用是有严格的界限和规定的。

定语从句中常用的关系代词有that(指人或物,在从句中充当主语或宾语)、who(指人,在从句中充当主语)、whom(指人,在从句中充当宾语)、which(指物或修饰整个句子)、whose(所指对象不限,在从句中充当定语)、as(指事件或现象,在从句中充当主语或宾语)。关系副词有(where, when, why…)。


  • 在表示时间、地点、原因的限制性及非限制性定语从句中,可以使用关系副词when, where, why。这些关系副词在定语从句中作状语。
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1989 was the year when (in which) my son was born.

She knows a wood where (in which) we can find wild strawberries.


  • 在有些情况下,不管先行词是表示人还是物,只要指代它的是关系代词,即在剧中不作状语,就只用that而不用which或who/whom。
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I'll do anything (that) I can.

Bach is the greatest composer that's ever lived.

Which is the flower that you just watered?


  • 在所有的关系词中as的用法最为特殊。它主要有以下三种用法:
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# 当从句的先行词前有有such或the same时,必须使用as。
I haven't seen such a good painting as you described just now.

# as可像which一样引导一个定语从句修饰整个线性主句,而不是某一个单词。
Taiwan belongs to China, as is known.

# as是关系词中唯一可以置于句首的关系词。
As is known., Taiwan belongs to China.